Keith E. Taylor
voice: (519) 253-4232 ex 3598
fax: (519) 973-7098
Applied Enzymology & Environmental Biotechnology. Enzyme-based methods are being developed as an alternative strategy for industrial wastewater treatment. This work is done in close collaboration with a campus group in environmental engineering using isolated enzymes, either free in solution or in immobilized form. In some cases, enzymatic methods of analysis are developed to complement the spectroscopic ones that are used in process development and modeling. Currently, we are broadening the scope of applicability by developing two, separate chemical "front-ends" for the enzyme-based process. Thus, Fenton-type chemistry is being explored as a means of converting aromatics of the BTEX, PAH, PCB and dioxin classes into phenolics. Similarly, zero-valent metal reduction is being utilized to convert nitro-aromatics into anilines. The products of both of these chemical processes are readily treated by the enzyme-based process. The goal of this project is to design cost-effective reactors for treatment of selected target streams to yield effluents in compliance with environmentally-acceptable discharge limits. Knowledge of protein chemistry, enzyme mechanisms and inactivation, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods, environmental (organic) chemistry and process monitoring, optimization and control will be required or acquired in varying degrees. Students gaining experience in the above areas would be well-suited for employment related to the chemical aspects of environmental biotechnology (analytical techniques, purification, characterization, utilization, downstream processing, production) and this would be complementary to the engineering and molecular biological aspects of the field.
Bio-organic Chemistry. A new project focuses on synthesis and structural characterization of defined conjugates of macromolecular carriers decorated with small-molecule functional units. On the one hand, functionality is chosen to provide cytotoxic agents; on the other, the aim is to furnish (metallo)porphyrin conjugates with various properties, including oxygen-binding suitable for blood substitutes. This work is a collaboration with departmental colleagues where our contribution is primarily the assembly of conjugates. In the wider group detailed molecular modeling, photophysical and biochemical characterization are carried out. Knowledge of organic chemistry, protein chemistry and enzymology are central to our part of this project. Students gaining experience in these areas would be well-suited for employment in several biotechnology fields as providers of drug-carrier conjugates and enzyme- (or antibody-) conjugates for analytical or therapeutic applications.
Y. Wu, K.E. Taylor, N. Biswas and J.K. Bewtra (1998). A model for the protective effect of additives on the activity of horseradish peroxidase in the removal of phenol. Enz. Microb. Technol. (in press; accepted Aug. 19, 1997)
M.S. Ibrahim, H.I. Ali, K.E. Taylor, N. Biswas and J.K. Bewtra (1997). Removal of phenol from industrial wastewaters using Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase in a continuous flow system. 52nd Purdue Industrial Waste Conference Proceedings, 1997 Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI. (in press)
Y. Wu, K.E. Taylor, N. Biswas and J.K. Bewtra (1997). Comparison of additives in the removal of phenolic compounds by peroxidase catalyzed polymerization. Water Research 31, 2699 - 2704.
K.E. Taylor, L. Al-Kassim, J.K. Bewtra, N. Biswas and J. Taylor (1996). Enzyme based wastewater treatment: removal of phenols by oxidative enzymes. In Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and Applications, M. Moo-Young, W.A. Anderson, A.M. Chakrabarty (editors), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (ISBN 0-7923-3877-4; pages 524 - 532).
J. Yu, K.E. Taylor, H. Zou, N. Biswas and J.K. Bewtra (1994). Phenol conversion and dimeric intermediates in horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed phenol removal from water. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 2154 - 2160.
L. Al-Kassim, K.E. Taylor, J.K. Bewtra and N. Biswas (1994). Evaluation and cost analysis of removal of selected organic contaminants from synthetic wastewater by enzyme-catalyzed polymerization. Water Environment Association of Ontario Conference Proceedings, pages 9 - 27.
J. Wu, J.K. Bewtra, N. Biswas and K.E. Taylor (1994). Effect of H2O2 addition mode on enzymatic removal of phenol from wastewater in the presence of polyethylene glycol. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 72, 881 - 886.
L. Al-Kassim, K.E. Taylor, J.A. Nicell, J.K. Bewtra and N. Biswas (1994). Enzymatic removal of selected aromatic contaminants from wastewater by a fungal peroxidase from Coprinus macrorhizus in batch reactors. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 61, 179 - 182.
K.J. Baynton, J.K. Bewtra, N. Biswas and K.E. Taylor (1994). Inactivation of horseradish peroxidase by phenol and hydrogen peroxide: a kinetic investigation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1206, 272 - 278.
L. Al-Kassim, K.E. Taylor, J.K. Bewtra and N. Biswas (1994). Optimization of phenol removal by a fungal peroxidase from Coprinus macrorhizus using batch, continuous and discontinuous semi-batch reactors. Enz. Microb. Technol. 16, 120 - 124.
L. Al-Kassim, K.E. Taylor, J.K. Bewtra and N. Biswas. Evaluation of the removal of aromatic and halogenated unsaturated hydrocarbons from synthetic wastewater by enzyme catalyzed polymerization. 48th Purdue Industrial Waste Conference Proceedings, 1993 Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, pages 413 - 420.
Y. Wu, J.K. Bewtra, N. Biswas and K.E. Taylor. Removal of phenol derivatives from aqueous solution by enzymatic reaction with additives. 48th Purdue Industrial Waste Conference Proceedings, 1993 Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, pages 421 - 431.
L. Al-Kassim, K.E. Taylor, J.K. Bewtra and N. Biswas (1993). Aromatics removal from water by Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase. In Plant Peroxidases: Biochemistry and Physiology, K.G. Welinder, S.K. Rasmussen, C. Penel and H. Greppin, eds. University of Geneva, 1993, pages 197-200.
J.A. Nicell, J.K. Bewtra, N. Biswas and K.E. Taylor (1993). Reactor development for peroxidase catalyzed polymerization and precipitation of phenols from wastewater. Water Research 27, 1629-1639.
J.A. Nicell, L. Al-Kassim, J.K. Bewtra and K.E. Taylor (1993). Wastewater treatment by enzyme catalyzed polymerization and precipitation. Biodeterioration Abstracts 7(1), 1 - 8.
J.A. Nicell, J.K. Bewtra, N. Biswas, C.C. St. Pierre and K. E. Taylor (1993). Enzyme catalyzed polymerization and precipitation of aromatic compounds from aqueous solution. Can. J. Civil Engineering 20, 725 - 735.
J. Wu, K.E. Taylor, J.K. Bewtra and N. Biswas (1993). Optimization of the reaction conditions for enzymatic removal of phenol from wastewater in the presence of polyethylene glycol. Water Research 27, 1701 - 1706.